RE-MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE EXCHANGE OF
Viscous Vibration Dampers
We provide re-manufacturing and service exchange of viscous vibration dampers from Hasse & Wrede, STE, Holset, Simpson, Metaldyne and WSK.
Torsional vibrations in piston-engine crankshafts are generated by the crank throws, which convert linear reciprocating piston movement into rotational movement. The vibration amplitudes superimposed on uniform rotation of the shaft can reach levels, both in the zones of resonance and on their flanks, which generate unacceptable stresses or at the very least undesirable noise.
The viscous damper has proved successful for many years in reducing crankshaft loads. It operates independently of the engine's lubricating-oil circuit and needs no maintenance or adjustment throughout its working life.
The damper consists of a totally-enclosed housing (1) with cover (2) and the inertia ring (3). The inertia ring (3) is located radially and axially in the housing by the plain bearings (4), which also ensure the necessary internal clearance. Gaps (5) between the housing and the ring are filled with a high-viscosity silicone fluid. Two extraction plugs (6) provide the opportunity of testing the silicone fluid without having to dismantle the damper.
The viscous damper provides the necessary torsional vibration damping effect by resilient, damped coupling of the secondary to the primary mass. If the crankshaft rotates uniformly without torsional vibration the inertia ring in the housing is driven round without any slippage occurring.
However, as soon as even slight superimposed vibration amplitudes occur, relative movement takes place between the housing (primary mass) and the ring (secondary mass). This generates alternating shear stresses in the silicone film. The sum of these stresses over the entire gap surface results in a "damping" moment. The damper is operative throughout the engine's speed range and takes effect at all orders of harmonics.
The vibration energy generated by the combustion and inertial forces acting on the crankshaft is converted by the damper into an equivalent quantity of heat. This heat is dissipated by the surface of the housing. If the cooling effect thus obtained is inadequate, additional oil or air cooling has to be provided. The working temperature of the damper should not exceed 95°C. It is permissible to run the damper at higher temperatures but this may lead to a reduced life time.
A characteristic feature of the viscous damper is the high-viscosity silicone fluid it contains. The viscosities normally employed in dampers range from 80.000 to 500.000mm2/s. Silicone fluid is completely transparent when new. The loss in viscosity due to operation at increased temperatures is less in silicone fluid than in, say, mineral oil; the viscosity in fact varies in accordance with the speed of deformation, and for this reason silicone fluids are referred to as being of the "non-Newtonian" type.
Due to the large number of applications for viscous dampers in engine systems, the differing stresses to which such dampers are subjected and the variations in operating conditions, it is impossible to give more than a general guide as to when dampers should be replaced. Based on experience gathered to date and on the assumption that the damper exhibits no external mechanical damage, dampers which have been subjected to normal loads should achieve the following life spans between overhauls:
|Dampers on motor vehicle engines||500.000 km|
|Industrial, locomotive and marine applications
(speeds exceeding 600 1/min)
|20,000 service hours|
|Other industrial and marine applications
(speeds up to 600 1/min)
|30,000 to 50,000 service hours|
It is possible to increase the above mentioned periods when the proper function of the damper is checked in regular intervals by measuring the viscosity of the silicone fluid inside the damper. Two extraction plugs on the damper housing provide the opportunity to extract fluid samples (see chapter "Taking a silicone oil sample"). The first sample should be taken after 10,000 hours (application b) resp. 30.000 hours (application c).
Hasse & Wrede viscous dampers equipped with extraction plugs provide the opportunity of testing the viscosity of the silicone oil inside the damper without having to dismantle it. Corresponding to the condition of the silicone oil an approximate assessment of the damper efficiency is possible. A silicone oil sample should be extracted as follows:
- After engine stops let damper cool down to nearly 40°C (i.e. 100°F)
- Rotate the damper to bring one of the extraction plugs (6) to optimum position.
- Prepare the sample container (10) by removing one of its caps (11).
- Unscrew and remove the extraction plug (6) and replace it by the sample container (10). If meeting at the inertia ring (3) unscrew the container one revolution.
- Remove the second cap from the sample container and wait until silicone fluid (5) begins to flow out from the free end. Depending on the silicone viscosity this process needs a certain amount of time. If possible it can be speeded up by means of
- turning the damper until the sample container is underneath the crankshaft,
- temporarily removing the second extraction plug, too
- As soon as the silicone fluid begins to flow, shut the sample container by the cap. Remove the container from the damper casing, wipe off the sealing face round the extraction hole and screw in the plugs together with new sealing washers (7). Now close the second side of the container.
- Tighten both extraction plugs with thumb and forefinger then turn them further for 45° (about 20 Nm=2 kpm=170 lb ins torque).
- Seal both plugs by caulking their grooves.
- Send the sample container complete with the damper type, serial number, engine and operation data to our address:
AVM Diesel (F.E.) Pte Ltd
Blk 27 Tuas Ave 13 #01-23
The quantity of silicone oil removed is so small that up to 10 such samples can be taken without risk. The viscosity of the silicone oil sample is best measured by the damper manufacturer, who can assess the approximate condition of the damper after analyzing the sample. The damper manufacturer will also indicate the operating period after which a fresh sample should be tested.
If it is impracticable to submit samples to the damper manufacturer, some other suitable laboratory can be asked to determine the viscosity of the oil. We recommend the use of a rotation viscometer with cone and plate sensor system and contact control.
Viscous torsional vibration dampers with either a bolted or a welded cover can be reconditioned as "new".
The viscous damper should be treated with the same care as any other moving part of the engine. Mechanical damage to the thin-walled damper housing can adversely affect damper efficiency and can lead to unacceptable stresses in crankshaft and transmission elements.
If the general vibrations in the engine system rise at any speed within the normal speed range with the engine in operation, this can be caused by a reduction in damper efficiency and the damper should then be exchanged and investigated at the earliest opportunity.
In identical engine systems dampers are fully interchangeable. It should be noted however, that when dampers are fitted to two or more systems it will become necessary to check the damper running time in each case. The damper surface can be cleaned with any commercially available cleansingmedium.